Vegetation

The vegetation in Šumava is a typical example of the Central European highlands, although it also has specific characteristics, especially provided by the relative proximity of the Alps. Šumava itself, except for small stretches of the foothills, is not brimming over with a variety of natural conditions. The flora is therefore somewhat uniform, diversified rather by anthropogenic than by natural influences.

The initial deposit into the Šumava phytogene pool began in ancient times in the Earth's geological past. It therefore corresponds with Central European vegetation, dictated by the location, range of altitudes, climate and climate changes throughout the centuries.

Chapters

Flora

The total number of tall plants throughout the Šumava Oreophyticum with a slight overlap into Mezophyticum (the current area of Šumava PLA + NP) can be estimated at approximately 1260 taxa. From this, the National Park itself accounts more than 500 species.

Přehled ochranářsky významných taxonů
  Protected species
  I - critically endangered II - highly endangered III - endangered Total
Šumava 15 36 37 88
NP ŠUMAVA 10 29 30 69
Šumava PLA + rest Biosphere Reserve 11 27 29 67

The vast majority of conservational-important, endangered and protected species (ca 80%) in the Šumava Oreophyticum are concentrated in non-forest formations, and from these, the most important ones are the ecosystems of forest free areas, which account for an estimated concentration of at least 60% of the total diversity of species in Šumava and for example,
70% of critically endangered, etc.

The corresponding ratios of taxa in the meadow formations are quite lower in the territory of the National Park. The reason for this is the lower proportion of forest free areas and the naturally relatively smaller diversity of species in the meadows and pastures at high altitudes. Nevertheless, it is more than obvious that forest free meadow formations with different needs and levels of management are crucial for the preservation of the current diversity of species in Šumava National Park. This is, from the botanical point of view, the fundamental basis of the basic philosophy for the conservation plan.

The present flora and fauna was basically formed at some point in the last 15,000 to 20,000 years during the Late Glacial and Postglacial periods. In Central Europe and during this relatively short period, a number of fundamentally different vegetation formations were often surpassed in the process of secular vegetation succession, which is generally quite well known. The end of the last Ice Age and several centuries of Holocene, in which nature developed without human interaction, are characterized by the progressive fluctuating climate warming and humidification. Many of the large Šumava peat bogs started to form at the end of the last glacial and in the earliest stages of Holocene. The forest free periglacial tundra was gradually replaced by forests in accordance with the topography and the edaphic conditions. The forming of the original flora, which in terms of composition mainly originated from local sources, ended with the stabilisation of the climate and the natural vegetation cover.

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