Šumava belongs among the largest and oldest mountain-range in Central Europe with extensive glacial relicts of the peak platforms, located on several levels at altitudes 1,000 m.a.s.l. These are maintained in its central part and are called the Šumava plains. The Šumava Mountains are also home to the European watershed of the Black Sea and the North Sea. The mountains have a distant geomorphologic position towards the main European erosion basis. The relics of the paleo reliefs at the Šumava plains are considered to be among the oldest on the European continent.

Throughout the known geological evolution, Šumava was exposed to various terrigenous, destructive and denudation processes. . According to the latest geological research, Šumava is formed by a complicated arched structure of Variscan metamorphic rocks and is part of the Moldanubian Zone. This structure borders on the SE with the Danube fault line which basically surrounds the Bohemian Massif. A significant tectonic element is the Bavarian quartz ridge which lines the Šumava foothills.

Significant geological and geomorphologic locations
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